What Makes Farmers Follow the Standard? The Role of Regional Characteristics, Local Alternatives, and Policy Support in Non-State Market Driven Governance in the Arava, Israel
Supermarkets have become a major actor in driving a shift to more sustainable agricultural practices throughout the agri-food value chains, using certification schemes and other instruments known as non-state market driven (NSMD) governance. This paper explores what factors may affect farmers’ willingness to join such mechanism once it is in place, based on the case study of pepper growers in the Arava region in southern Israel. Based on an extensive farmers survey and interviews with other stakeholders in the region, we find that regional characteristics such as export dependency, homogeneity in regional production patterns, prior experience and farm level awareness are tied with NSMD adoption. Adoption is also made possible by the availability of services offering alternative practices to the farmers, and the different ways public policy supports the shift, and in turn is affected by it.
Archer, M. (2021) How to govern a sustainable supply chain: Standards, standardizers, and the political ecology of (in) advertence. Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, doi: 25148486211014505.
Arcuri, A. (2015) The transformation of organic regulation: The ambiguous effects of publicization. Regulation and Governance, 9(2), 144-159.
Auld, G., Balboa, C., Bernstein, S., Cashore, B., Delmas, M., and Young, O. (2009) The emergence of non-state market-driven (NSDM) global environmental governance. In Delmas M. A. and Young, O. R. (Eds) Governance for the Environment: New perspectives, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 183-218.
Auld, G., and Cashore, B. (2013) Mixed signals: NGO campaigns and non-state market driven (NSMD) governance in an export-oriented country. Canadian Public Policy, 39 (Supplement 2), S143-S156.
Bair, J., and Palpacuer, F. (2015) CSR beyond the corporation: Contested governance in global value chains. Global networks, 15(s1), S1-S19.
Bernstein, S., and Cashore, B. (2007). Can non‐state global governance be legitimate? An analytical framework. Regulation and Governance, 1(4), 347-371.
Biobee (2014) Field Services. Retrieved 13 August 2014, from http://www.biobee.com/field-services/
Biobee (2020, June 2) Field services: Biobee Sde Eliahu. ביו בי ישראל |. Retrieved April 16, 2022, from https://biobee.co.il/%d7%a9%d7%99%d7%a8%d7%95%d7%aa%d7%99-%d7%a9%d7%93%d7%94/
Bitzer, V., and Glasbergen, P. (2015) Business–NGO partnerships in global value chains: Part of the solution or part of the problem of sustainable change? Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 12, 35-40.
Brunori, G., Galli, F., Barjolle, D., Van Broekhuizen, R., Colombo, L., Giampietro, M., ... and Touzard, J. M. (2016) Are local food chains more sustainable than global food chains? Considerations for assessment. Sustainability, 8(5), 449 doi.org/10.3390/su8050449.
Bush, S. R., Oosterveer, P., Bailey, M., and Mol, A. P. (2015) Sustainability governance of chains and networks: A review and future outlook. Journal of Cleaner Production, 107, 8-19.
Campbell, H., Lawrence, G., and Smith, K. (2006) Audit cultures and the antipodes: The implications of EurepGAP for New Zealand and Australian agri-food industries. In: Between the Local and the Global. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Cann, A. (2021, June 28) Home. The Whole Story. Retrieved April 13, 2022, from https://media.wholefoodsmarket.com/wholestory/this-is-sourced-for-good/
Cashore, B. (2002) Legitimacy and the Privatization of Environmental Governance: How Non-State Market-Driven (NSMD) Governance Systems Gain Rule Making Authority. Governance, 15, 503-529.
-----. (2019) Problems of bottom-up collaboration: Evolutionary pathways and capacity challenges of NSMD governance certification institutions. In: Kekez, A. Howlett, M. and Ramesh. M (Eds) Collaboration in Public Service Delivery. Edward Elgar Publishing, 168-182
Cashore, B., Auld, G., Bernstein, S., and McDermott, C. (2007) Can non‐state governance ‘ratchet up’ global environmental standards? Lessons from the forest sector. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law, 16(2), 158-172.
Central and Northern Arava and Tamar R&D. (2022a) Vegetables. Retrieved 13 April 2022, from http://agri.arava.co.il/departments-view/vegetables
-----. (2022b) About . Arava. Retrieved April 15, 2022, from http://agri.arava.co.il/about
Central Arava Regional Council (2022) General Information. Retrieved April 13, 2022, from https://www.arava.co.il/13/
Cuyno, L. C., Norton, G. W., and Rola, A. (2001) Economic analysis of environmental benefits of integrated pest management: A Philippine case study. Agricultural Economics, 25(2-3), 227-233.
Daugbjerg, C., and Feindt, P. H. (2017) Post-exceptionalism in public policy: Transforming food and agricultural policy. Journal of European Public Policy, 24(11), 1565-1584.
de Raymond, A. B. and Bonnaud, L. (2014) Beyond the public–private divide: GLOBALGAP as a regulation repository for farmers. International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 21(2), 227-246.
Dubrinin, S. (2012) Reviewing plant protection for pepper in the Arava, 2011/12 season. Retrieved 13 April 2022, from http://agri.arava.co.il/research/page/20?research_author=37
Elder, S. and Dauvergne, P. (Eds.). (2017) Farming for Walmart: The politics of corporate control and responsibility in the Global South. In: Dinar, A., Espinola-Arredondo, A., Munoz-Garcia, F., Matthew R.A., Harron. C., Goodrich, K., Maharramli, B. Nizkorodov, E., Bryant, T. and Botelho, A. (Eds.) World Scientific Reference on Natural Resources and Environmental Policy in the Era of Global Change: Volume 2: The Social Ecology of the Anthropocene: Continuity and Change in Global Environmental Politics, 173-196.
ENDURE Boonekamp, P. M., and van den Je, E. (2009) ENDURE Foresight Study: Crop protection in Europe 2030. Gewasbescherming 40.3 (2009): 132-133. Project foresight 2030.
ENDURE (2022) ENDURE NETWORK - What is ENDURE? Retrieved 13 April 2022, from http://www.endure-network.eu/what_is_endure
EPA (2009) Green Servicizing for a more Sustainable US Economy: Key concepts, Tools, to Inform Policy Engagement. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery, Washington DC. Retrieved on January 6 2011 http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/tools/stewardship/docs/green-service.pdf
Erbaugh, J., Bierbaum, R., Castilleja, G., da Fonseca, G. A., and Hansen, S. C. B. (2019) Toward sustainable agriculture in the tropics. World Development, 121, 158-162.
European Parliament (2009a) Directive 2009/128/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides. Official Journal of the European Union, 309, 71-86.
-----. (2009b) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market and repealing Council Directives 79/117/EEC and 91/414/EEC. EU, Brussels.
FAO (2015) Website on agroecology and publication on 'Building a common vision for sustainable food and agriculture', available here: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3940e.pdf, retrieved June 2015
Fiankor, D. D. D., Flachsbarth, I., Masood, A., and Brümmer, B. (2017) Does GlobalGAP certification promote agrifood exports? (No. 112). GlobalFood Discussion Papers.
Friedmann, H., and McNair, A. (2008) Whose rules rule? Contested projects to certify ‘Local production for distant consumers’1. Journal of Agrarian Change, 8(2‐3), 408-434.
Fulponi, L. (2007) The globalization of private standards and the agri-food system. In Swinnen J.F.M. (ed.) Global supply chains, standards and the poor: How the Globalization of Food Systems and Standards Affects Rural Development and Poverty, Wallingford: Cabi, 5-18.
Gan, J., Stupak, I., and Smith, C. T. (2019) Integrating policy, market, and technology for sustainability governance of agriculture-based biofuel and bioeconomic development in the US. Energy, Sustainability and Society, 9(1), 1-25.
Giessen, L., Burns, S., Sahide, M. A. K., and Wibowo, A. (2016) From governance to government: The strengthened role of state bureaucracies in forest and agricultural certification. Policy and Society, 35(1), 71-89.
Glasbergen, P., and Schouten, G. (2015) Transformative capacities of global private sustainability standards: A reflection on scenarios in the field of agricultural commodities. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, (58), 85-101.
GLOBALG.A.P. (2022) History. Retrieved 13 April 2022, from http://www.globalgap.org/uk_en/who-we-are/about-us/history/
Grabs, J. (2017) The rise of buyer-driven sustainability governance: emerging trends in the global coffee sector. ZenTra Working Paper in Transnational Studies No. 73 / 2017
Guéneau, S. (2018) Neoliberalism and the emergence of private sustainability initiatives: The case of the Brazilian cattle value chain. Business Strategy and the Environment, 27(2), 240-251.
Hatanaka, M., Bain, C., and Busch, L. (2005) Third-party certification in the global agrifood system. Food policy, 30(3), 354-369.
Havice, E., and Campling, L. (2017) Where chain governance and environmental governance meet: Interfirm strategies in the canned tuna global value chain. Economic Geography, 93(3), 292-313.
Heilmayr, R., and Lambin, E. F. (2016) Impacts of non-state, market-driven governance on Chilean forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(11), 2910-2915.
Henriksen, K., Bjerre, M., Øster, J., and Bisgaard, T. (2012) Green business model innovation-policy report. Nordic Council of Ministers.
Henson, S. (2008) The role of public and private standards in regulating international food markets. Journal of International Agricultural Trade and Development, 4(1), 63-81.
Henson, S., and Humphrey, J. (2010) Understanding the complexities of private standards in global agri-food chains as they impact developing countries. The Journal of Development Studies, 46(9), 1628-1646.
Henson, S., and Reardon, T. (2005) Private agri-food standards: Implications for food policy and the agri-food system. Food policy, 30(3), 241-253.
Horner, R. (2017) Beyond facilitator? State roles in global value chains and global production networks. Geography Compass, 11(2), e12307.
srael Central Bureau of Statistics. (2012) Survey of Pesticides in Agriculture 2008-2010. Retrieved 13 April 2022, from https://www.cbs.gov.il/he/mediarelease/DocLib/2012/294/07_12_294b.pdf
Israel Ministry of Agriculture and Central and Northern Arava-Tamar R&D (2021) Recommendations for spring pepper growing in the Arava 2021/22. Retrieved 13 April 2022, from http://agri.arava.co.il/wp-content/uploads/%D7%94%D7%9E%D7%9C%D7%A6%D7%95%D7%AA-%D7%92%D7%99%D7%93%D7%95%D7%9C-%D7%A4%D7%9C%D7%A4%D7%9C-%D7%90%D7%91%D7%99%D7%91%D7%99-2021-22.pdf
Israel Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. (2016) Managing Pepper Pests. Retrieved 13 April 2022, from http://agri.arava.co.il/wp-content/uploads/f6_Pesticides-for-pepper-2017-2016-1.pdf
Jones, P., Comfort, D., and Hillier, D. (2007). What's in store? Retail marketing and corporate social responsibility. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, DOI:10.1108/02634500710722371
Kariuki, I. M., Loy, J. P., and Herzfeld, T. (2012) Farmgate private standards and price premium: Evidence from the GlobalGAP scheme in Kenya's French beans marketing. Agribusiness, 28(1), 42-53.
Kloosterman, K. (2014). Top 12 agri-tech companies from Israel - ISRAEL21c. Retrieved 13 April 2022, from https://www.israel21c.org/top-12-agri-tech-companies-from-israel-2/?fb_action_ids=576348785783023and fb_action_types=og.likesand fb_source=other_multilineand action_object_map=1441889776040253and action_type_map=og.likesand action_ref_map
Konefal, J., Mascarenhas, M., and Hatanaka, M. (2005) Governance in the global agro-food system: Backlighting the role of transnational supermarket chains. Agriculture and Human Values, 22(3), 291-302.
Lambin, E. F., and Thorlakson, T. (2018) Sustainability standards: Interactions between private actors, civil society, and governments. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 43, 369-393.
Lamine, C., Garçon, L., and Brunori, G. (2019) Territorial agrifood systems: A Franco-Italian contribution to the debates over alternative food networks in rural areas. Journal of Rural Studies, 68, 159-170.
Lund‐Thomsen, P., and Nadvi, K. (2010) Global value chains, local collective action and corporate social responsibility: A review of empirical evidence. Business Strategy and the Environment, 19(1), 1-13.
Macfadyen, S., Tylianakis, J. M., Letourneau, D. K., Benton, T. G., Tittonell, P., Perring, M. P., ... and Smith, H. G. (2015) The role of food retailers in improving resilience in global food supply. Global Food Security, 7, 1-8.
Mont, O. K. (2002) Clarifying the concept of product–service system. Journal of Cleaner Production, 10(3), 237-245.
Mook, A., and Overdevest, C. (2021) What drives market construction for fair trade, organic, and GlobalGAP certification in the global citrus value chain? Evidence at the importer level in the Netherlands and the United States. Business Strategy and the Environment, 30(7), 2996-3008.
Naik, G., and Suresh, D. N. (2018) Challenges of creating sustainable agri-retail supply chains. IIMB Management Review, 30(3), 270-282.
Ningsih, I. K., Ingram, V., and Savilaakso, S. (2020) Voluntary sustainability certification and state regulations: Paths to promote the conservation of ecosystem services? Experiences in Indonesia. Forests, 11(5), 503 https://doi.org/10.3390/f11050503.
Notarnicola, B., Hayashi, K., Curran, M. A., and Huisingh, D. (2012) Progress in working towards a more sustainable agri-food industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 28, 1-8.
OECD (2009) Sustainable Manufacturing and Eco-innovation: Framework, Measurement and Industry and Policy Practices, Synthesis Report. Retrieved January 10 2010 http://www.oecd.org/sti/inno/43423689.pdf
-----. (2014) Report of the OECD Seminar on Indicators for Integrated Pest Management. Series on Pesticides, No. 75, 2014. Retrieved March 15 2014 http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=ENV/JM/MONO(2014)7and doclanguage=en
Poore, J., and Nemecek, T. (2018) Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers. Science, 360(6392), 987-992.
PPIS (2015) Pepper export from the Arava 2014-2015. Retrieved April 13, 2022, from http://agri.arava.co.il/wp-content/uploads/f6_Pepper-export-Alon-Podin-19May15.pdf
Rothenberg, S. (2007) Sustainability through servicizing. MIT Sloan Management Review, 48(2), 83.
Schlyter, P., Stjernquist, I., and Bäckstrand, K. (2009) Not seeing the forest for the trees? The environmental effectiveness of forest certification in Sweden. Forest Policy and Economics, 11(5-6), 375-382.
Schouten, G., and Bitzer, V. (2015) The emergence of Southern standards in agricultural value chains: A new trend in sustainability governance? Ecological Economics, 120, 175-184.
Schouten, G., and Glasbergen, P. (2011) Creating legitimacy in global private governance: The case of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil. Ecological Economics, 70(11), 1891-1899.
Stahel, W. R. (1998) From Products to Services: Selling performance instead of goods. IPTS Report, 27(1998), 35-42.
Strazdina, E. (2018) GLOBALG.A.P. requirements related to plant protection products (PPP) and IPM. Retrieved April 16, 2022, from https://www.globalgap.org/export/sites/default/.content/.galleries/Pictures/TOUR2018/TOUR_Bosnia_Presentations/3ESTRA~1.PDF
Taglioni, D., and Winkler, D. (2016) Making Global Value Chains Work for Development. World Bank Publications.
Tallontire, A., Opondo, M., Nelson, V., and Martin, A. (2011) Beyond the vertical? Using value chains and governance as a framework to analyse private standards initiatives in agri-food chains. Agriculture and Human Values, 28(3), 427-441.
The State Comptroller and Ombudsman of Israel. (2012) 62nd Annual Report for Calendar Year 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2022, from https://www.mevaker.gov.il/he/Reports/Report_117/7a44cb07-45ac-48be-a727-35d22bde8437/7541.pdf
Timmer, C. P. (2009) Do supermarkets change the food policy agenda? World Development, 37(11), 1812-1819.
Tipples, R. and Whatman, R. (2010) Employment standards in world food production--the place of GLOBALGAP supply contracts and indirect legislation. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations, 35(3), 40-60.
Van den Berg, H., and Jiggins, J. (2007) Investing in farmers—the impacts of farmer field schools in relation to integrated pest management. World Development, 35(4), 663-686.
van der Blom, J., Robledo, A., Torres, S., and Sánchez, J. A. (2009) Consequences of the wide scale implementation of biological control in greenhouse horticulture in Almeria, Spain. IOBC/WPRS Bull. 49 9–13.
van der Ven, H., Rothacker, C., and Cashore, B. (2018) Do eco-labels prevent deforestation? Lessons from non-state market driven governance in the soy, palm oil, and cocoa sectors. Global Environmental Change, 52, 141-151.
van Lenteren, J. C. (2009) IPM in greenhouse vegetables and ornamentals. In: Radcliffe, E. B., Hutchison, W. D. and Cancelado, R. E. (Eds.) Integrated Pest Management: Concepts, Tactics, Strategies and Case Studies. Cambridge University: Cambridge University Press, 354-365.
-----. (2012) The state of commercial augmentative biological control: Plenty of natural enemies, but a frustrating lack of uptake. BioControl, 57.1: 1-20.
van Rijsbergen, B., Elbers, W., Ruben, R., and Njuguna, S. N. (2016) The ambivalent impact of coffee certification on farmers’ welfare: A matched panel approach for cooperatives in Central Kenya. World Development, 77, 277-292.
Vandergeest, P. (2007) Certification and communities: Alternatives for regulating the environmental and social impacts of shrimp farming. World Development, 35(7), 1152-1171.
Virah-Sawmy, M., Durán, A. P., Green, J. M., Guerrero, A. M., Biggs, D., and West, C. D. (2019) Sustainability gridlock in a global agricultural commodity chain: Reframing the soy–meat food system. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 18, 210-223.
Von Geibler, J. (2013) Market-based governance for sustainability in value chains: Conditions for successful standard setting in the palm oil sector. Journal of Cleaner Production, 56, 39-53.
Walmart (2022) Walmart policies and Guidelines. (2022, March 18). Retrieved April 13, 2022, from https://corporate.walmart.com/policies
Waterfield, G., and Zilberman, D. (2012) Pest management in food systems: An economic perspective. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 37, 223-245.
- The contributor(s) (authors) warrant that the entire work is original and unpublished; it is submitted only to this Journal and all text, data, figures/tables or other illustrations included in this work are completely original and unpublished, and these have not been previously published or submitted elsewhere in any form or media whatsoever.
- The contributor(s) warrant that the work contains no unlawful or libelous statements and opinions and liable materials of any kind whatsoever, does not infringe on any copyrights, intellectual property rights, personal rights or rights of any kind of others, nor contains any plagiarized, fraudulent, improperly attributed materials, instructions, procedures, information or ideas that might cause any harm, damage, injury, losses or costs of any kind to person or property.
- The contributor(s) retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- The contributor(s) are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- The contributor(s) are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- Geography Research Forum may disseminate the content of the publications and publications’ Meta data in text, image, or other print and electronic formats to providers of research databases (e.g. EBSCO, GeoBase, JSTOR) to facilitate publications' exposure.